Saturday, 15 September 2012

Karnataka University B. A. III Sem Syllabus and Material

Dr. D. B. Gavani B. A/ B. Sc Part II Additional English Semester III ( From 2012-13 onwards) Elaboration of the question (7) i.e. Pros and cons on the given topics Write a short essay with at least 2 (three) points each on “pros and Cons’ of/on the given topic The purpose behind this exercise is 1. To encourage students to think independently and logically keeping totality of the matter in mind; 2. To look at reality from a fresh point of view; 3. To understand and appreciate the views of others; 4. To take part in group discussion fruitfully; 5. To develop confidence and competence in debating over a subject, etc. Meaning / Definition of ‘Pros and Cons’ 1. Advantages or disadvantages of a course of action, idea, etc .(Page no. 1112) 2. Pro : 1. A reason argument or choice in favor of something. (15c Latin) 2. In favor of (the specified thing) admiring or supporting- (Page No. 1104) Suggested topic to write ‘Pros and Cons’ of/on the given topic 1. Arranged marriage is the only remedy to check alarming divorce rate in our country. 2. English medium from the primary school level in education is self-destructive cultural policy in Indian Sub-Continent. 3. Industrialize and Perish! 4. Protect environment ; Environment protects you. 5. Mother is not a machine, but a human being. 6. God helps those who help themselves. 7. Modern gadgets cripple human abilities. 8. Money can buy books, but not knowledge 9. Poverty is a blessing in disguise. 10. “What is life? It depends upon liver”! 11. Religions have divided people more than they have united. 12. Low aim is a crime. 13. Justice delayed is justice denied. 14. You are architect of your own destiny. 15. Is globalization another name of westernization? B.A./B.Sc. III Semester ( from 2012-13 onwards ) Basic English List of One Word Substitution Autobiography - Life history of a person written by oneself Anonymous - Unknown or unadmitted authorship. Auditorium - A building in which the audience sit to watch or listen a programme. Alien - unfamiliar (adj.), a foreigner(n.) Amateur - A person who engages in a pursuit as a pastime rather than a profession. Atheist - One who has no belief in the existence of God. Ambassador - A minister or an officer representing a sovereign/ state in a foreign country. Audience - An assembly of listeners or spectators of an event. Ambiguous - Having an obscure or double meaning wherein several interpretations are possible Anniversary - Yearly return of a date to celebrate an event Anarchy - The absence of government / lawless condition in a country – disorder, chaos especially of political of sovereign. Biography - The life history of a person written by someone. Boycott - stay away from / refuse to handle the assigned task/ responsibilities Cannibal - One who eats human flesh Colleague - An associate in an office or profession Drought - An extreme dry weather without any rain-fall, famine, scarcity Democracy - A government of the people, for the people, by the people Detective - A person who investigates crimes – a spy Divorce - Legal separation between a husband and a wife Dictatorship - The government carried on by an absolute ruler—autocrat, tyrant Extempore - A speech made off -hand/ without preparation Epitaph - Words inscribed on a tomb. Edible - That which is fit to be eaten, suitable and safe for eating Forgery - An act of making false document like signature of someone without permission. Germicide - A substance that kills germs Glossary - A list of words with meaning and explanations Gravitation - The attractive force of the Earthy Gullible - One who can easily be deceived – cheated, swindled Herbivorous - Animals that live on herbs Honorarium - A voluntary payment made for service Illegible - Incapable of being read, unclear or impossible to read. Illiterate - A person who can neither read nor write. Inflammable - Capable of being easily set on fire, likely to catch fire easily. Jury - A group of judges Manuscript - A Text/Paper/Book written by hand, a hand written text Mortal - Subject to death Martyr - A person persecuted or put to death for a great cause Matriarchy - A social organization where mothers are heads of the families. Misanthrope - One who hates mankind or avoids human society. Museum - A place where antiques, objects of art and culture are exhibited. Notorious - Widely known for bad things Nominee - A person named by someone for a job/office. Orphan - A child whose parents are dead(A Parentless child) Optimist - One who is inclined to look at the brighter side of things/expect success Orator - One who makes an eloquent public speech. Omnipresent - Being present everywhere Orchestra - A group of persons playing musical instruments Prodigal - Wasteful, spending or using too much, a spendthrift Pedestrian - One who goes on foot, a walker Polyglot - A person who knows many languages, a multi - linguist Simultaneous - Occurring at the same time. Solo - A song sung by a single person. Suicide - Killing oneself Teetotaler - A person who abstains from intoxicating drink Unanimous - United in a single opinion, being of one mind Unavoidable - That cannot be avoided Universal - Pertaining to the whole system of creation/universe Vegetarian - One who eats no meat or fish Veteran - A person with a long experience of an occupation Voluntary - Done or brought about by one’s own free will. Zoo - A place where animals are kept for show. ************************************************************************************ List of Words Often Confused Accept-except berth-birth beside-besides canvas-canvass Complement-compliment Decease-disease Draught-drought Eminent-imminent Human-humane Hair-heir Heal-heel Idle-idol Judicial-judicious Last-latest Lose-loose Notable-notorious None-nun Peal-peel Principle-principal President-precedent Story-storey Straight-strait Team-teem Quite-quiet Root-route Sell-cell Stationary-stationery Refuge-refuse Role-roll Soul-sole Tail-tale Trail-trial Veil-vale Waive-wave Floor-flour Wreck-wreak Accept-Expect Raise-rise Leave-live Know-no Piece-peace Prize-price Rite-right Meat-meet Cease-seize Week-weak Check-cheque Bare-bear B.A. III Semester English Optional (2012-13 onwards) Criticism Excerpts from Preface to Lyrical Ballads (for 10 marks) Sentence line No’s From To Total sentence lines 1. Line no 76 154 78 2. Line no 346 398 52 3. Line no 413 499 86 4. Line no 543 574 31 5. Line no 694 710 16 Total : 263 Sentence Approximately 8 Pages Source Book : English Critical Text by D.J. Enright, Ernst De Chickera Suggested Reading : 1. Critical Approaches to Literature by David Diaches 2. Literary Criticism : A short History – William Wimsatt & Cleanth Brooks Preface to Lyrical Ballads – An Excerpt William Wordswoth Line no 76 to 154 The principal object, then, proposed in these Poems was to choose incidents and situations from common life, and to relate or describe them, throughout, as far as was possible in a selection of language really used by men, and, at the same time, to throw over them a certain colouring of imagination, whereby ordinary things should be presented to the mind in an unusual aspect; and, further, and above all, to make these incidents and situations interesting by tracing in them, truly though not ostentatiously, the primary laws of our nature: chiefly, as far as regards the manner in which we associate ideas in a state of excitement. Humble and rustic life was generally chosen, because, in that condition, the essential passions of the heart find a better soil in which they can attain their maturity, are less under restraint, and speak a plainer and more emphatic language; because in that condition of life our elementary feelings coexist in a state of greater simplicity, and, consequently, may be more accurately contemplated, and more forcibly communicated; because the manners of rural life germinate from those elementary feelings, and, from the necessary character of rural occupations, are more easily comprehended, and are more durable; and, lastly, because in that condition the passions of men are incorporated with the beautiful and permanent forms of nature. The language, too, of these men has been adopted (purified indeed from what appear to be its real defects, from all lasting and rational causes of dislike or disgust) because such men hourly communicate with the best objects from which the best part of language is originally derived; and because, from their rank in society and the sameness and narrow circle of their intercourse, being less under the influence of social vanity, they convey their feelings and notions in simple and unelaborated expressions. Accordingly, such a language, arising out of repeated experience and regular feelings, is a more permanent, and a far more philosophical language, than that which is frequently substituted for it by Poets, who think that they are conferring honour upon themselves and their art, in proportion as they separate themselves from the sympathies of men, and indulge in arbitrary and capricious habits of expression, in order to furnish food for fickle tastes, and fickle appetites, of their own creation. I cannot, however, be insensible to the present outcry against the triviality and meanness, both of thought and language, which some of my contemporaries have occasionally introduced into their metrical compositions; and I acknowledge that this defect, where it exists, is more dishonourable to the Writer’s own character than false refinement or arbitrary innovation, though I should contend at the same time, that it is far less pernicious in the sum of its consequences. From such verses the Poems in these volumes will be found distinguished at least by one mark of difference, that each of them has a worthy purpose. Not that I always began to write with a distinct purpose formerly conceived; but habits of meditation have, I trust, so prompted and regulated my feelings, that my descriptions of such objects as strongly excite those feelings, will be found to carry along with them a purpose. If this opinion be erroneous, I can have little right to the name of a Poet. For all good poetry is the spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings: and though this be true, Poems to which any value can be attached were never produced on any variety of subjects but by a man who, being possessed of more than usual organic sensibility, had also thought long and deeply. For our continued influxes of feeling are modified and directed by our thoughts, which are indeed the representatives of all our past feelings; and, as by contemplating the relation of these general representatives to each other, we discover what is really important to men, so, by the repetition and continuance of this act, our feelings will be connected with important subjects, till at length, if we be originally possessed of much sensibility, such habits of mind will be produced, that, by obeying blindly and mechanically the impulses of those habits, we shall describe objects, and utter sentiments, of such a nature, and in such connexion with each other, that the understanding of the Reader must necessarily be in some degree enlightened, and his affections strengthened and purified. It has been said that each of these poems has a purpose. Another circumstance must be mentioned which distinguishes these Poems from the popular Poetry of the day; it is this, that the feeling therein developed gives importance to the action and situation, and not the action and situation to the feeling.  Line no 346 to 398 Taking up the subject, then, upon general grounds, let me ask, what is meant by the word Poet? What is a Poet? to whom does he address himself? and what language is to be expected from him?—He is a man speaking to men: a man, it is true, endowed with more lively sensibility, more enthusiasm and tenderness, who has a greater knowledge of human nature, and a more comprehensive soul, than are supposed to be common among mankind; a man pleased with his own passions and volitions, and who rejoices more than other men in the spirit of life that is in him; delighting to contemplate similar volitions and passions as manifested in the goings-on of the Universe, and habitually impelled to create them where he does not find them. to these qualities he has added a disposition to be affected more than other men by absent things as if they were present; an ability of conjuring up in himself passions, which are indeed far from being the same as those produced by real events, yet (especially in those parts of the general sympathy which are pleasing and delightful) do more nearly resemble the passions produced by real events, than anything which, from the motions of their own minds merely, other men are accustomed to feel in themselves:— whence, and from practice, he has acquired a greater readiness and power in expressing what he thinks and feels, and especially those thoughts and feelings which, by his own choice, or from the structure of his own mind, arise in him without immediate external excitement. But whatever portion of this faculty we may suppose even the greatest Poet to possess, there cannot be a doubt that the language which it will suggest to him, must often, in liveliness and truth, fall short of that which is uttered by men in real life, under the actual pressure of those passions, certain shadows of which the Poet thus produces, or feels to be produced, in himself. However exalted a notion we would wish to cherish of the character of a Poet, it is obvious, that while he describes and imitates passions, his employment is in some degree mechanical, compared with the freedom and power of real and substantial action and suffering. So that it will be the wish of the Poet to bring his feelings near to those of the persons whose feelings he describes, nay, for short spaces of time, perhaps, to let himself slip into an entire delusion, and even confound and identify his own feelings with theirs; modifying only the language which is thus suggested to him by a consideration that he describes for a particular purpose, that of giving pleasure. Here, then, he will apply the principle of selection which has been already insisted upon. He will depend upon this for removing what would otherwise be painful or disgusting in the passion; he will feel that there is no necessity to trick out or to elevate nature: and, the more industriously he applies this principle, the deeper will be his faith that no words, which his fancy or imagination can suggest, will be to be compared with those which are the emanations of reality and truth.  Line no 413 to 500 Aristotle, I have been told, has said, that Poetry is the most philosophic of all writing: it is so: its object is truth, not individual and local, but general, and operative; not standing upon external testimony, but carried alive into the heart by passion; truth which is its own testimony, which gives competence and confidence to the tribunal to which it appeals, and receives them from the same tribunal. Poetry is the image of man and nature. The obstacles which stand in the way of the fidelity of the Biographer and Historian, and of their consequent utility, are incalculably greater than those which are to be encountered by the Poet who comprehends the dignity of his art. The Poet writes under one restriction only, namely, the necessity of giving immediate pleasure to a human Being possessed of that information which may be expected from him, not as a lawyer, a physician, a mariner, an astronomer, or a natural philosopher, but as a Man. Except this one restriction, there is no object standing between the Poet and the image of things; between this, and the Biographer and Historian, there are a thousand. Nor let this necessity of producing immediate pleasure be considered as a degradation of the Poet’s art. It is far otherwise. It is an acknowledgement of the beauty of the universe, an acknowledgement the more sincere, because not formal, but indirect; it is a task light and easy to him who looks at the world in the spirit of love: further, it is a homage paid to the native and naked dignity of man, to the grand elementary principle of pleasure, by which he knows, and feels, and lives, and moves. We have no sympathy but what is propagated by pleasure: I would not be misunderstood; but wherever we sympathize with pain, it will be found that the sympathy is produced and carried on by subtle combinations with pleasure. We have no knowledge, that is, no general principles drawn from the contemplation of particular facts, but what has been built up by pleasure, and exists in us by pleasure alone. The Man of science, the Chemist and Mathematician, whatever difficulties and disgusts they may have had to struggle with, know and feel this. However painful may be the objects with which the Anatomist’s knowledge is connected, he feels that his knowledge is pleasure; and where he has no pleasure he has no knowledge. What then does the Poet? He considers man and the objects that surround him as acting and re-acting upon each other, so as to produce an infinite complexity of pain and pleasure; he considers man in his own nature and in his ordinary life as contemplating this with a certain quantity of immediate knowledge, with certain convictions, intuitions, and deductions, which from habit acquire the quality of intuitions; he considers him as looking upon this complex scene of ideas and sensations, and finding everywhere objects that immediately excite in him sympathies which, from the necessities of his nature, are accompanied by an overbalance of enjoyment. To this knowledge which all men carry about with them, and to these sympathies in which, without any other discipline than that of our daily life, we are fitted to take delight, the Poet principally directs his attention. He considers man and nature as essentially adapted to each other, and the mind of man as naturally the mirror of the fairest and most interesting properties of nature. and thus the Poet, prompted by this feeling of pleasure, which accompanies him through the whole course of his studies, converses with general nature, with affections akin to those, which, through labour and length of time, the Man of science has raised up in himself, by conversing with those particular parts of nature which are the objects of his studies. The knowledge both of the Poet and the Man of science is pleasure; but the knowledge of the one cleaves to us as a necessary part of our existence, our natural and unalienable inheritance; the other is a personal and individual acquisition, slow to come to us, and by no habitual and direct sympathy connecting us with our fellow-beings. The Man of science seeks truth as a remote and unknown benefactor; he cherishes and loves it in his solitude: the Poet, singing a song in which all human beings join with him, rejoices in the presence of truth as our visible friend and hourly companion. Poetry is the breath and finer spirit of all knowledge; it is the impassioned expression which is in the countenance of all Science. Emphatically may it be said of the Poet, as Shakespeare hath said of man, ‘that he looks before and after.’ He is the rock of defence for human nature; an upholder and preserver, carrying everywhere with him relationship and love. In spite of difference of soil and climate, of language and manners, of laws and customs: in spite of things silently gone out of mind, and things violently destroyed; the Poet binds together by passion and knowledge the vast empire of human society, as it is spread over the whole earth, and over all time. The objects of the Poet’s thoughts are everywhere; though the eyes and senses of man are, it is true, his favourite guides, yet he will follow wheresoever he can find an atmosphere of sensation in which to move his wings. Poetry is the first and last of all knowledge—it is as immortal as the heart of man.  Line no 543 to 574 Poet is chiefly distinguished from other men by a greater promptness to think and feel without immediate external excitement, and a greater power in expressing such thoughts and feelings as are produced in him in that manner. But these passions and thoughts and feelings are the general passions and thoughts and feelings of men. and with what are they connected? Undoubtedly with our moral sentiments and animal sensations, and with the causes which excite these; with the operations of the elements, and the appearances of the visible universe; with storm and sunshine, with the revolutions of the seasons, with cold and heat, with loss of friends and kindred, with injuries and resentments, gratitude and hope, with fear and sorrow. These, and the like, are the sensations and objects which the Poet describes, as they are the sensations of other men, and the objects which interest them. The Poet thinks and feels in the spirit of human passions. How, then, can his language differ in any material degree from that of all other men who feel vividly and see clearly? It might be proved that it is impossible. But supposing that this were not the case, the Poet might then be allowed to use a peculiar language when expressing his feelings for his own gratification, or that of men like himself. But Poets do not write for Poets alone, but for men. Unless therefore we are advocates for that admiration which subsists upon ignorance, and that pleasure which arises from hearing what we do not understand, the Poet must descend from this supposed height; and, in order to excite rational sympathy, he must express himself as other men express themselves. to this it may be added, that while he is only selecting from the real language of men, or, which amounts to the same thing, composing accurately in the spirit of such selection, he is treading upon safe ground, and we know what we are to expect from him.  Line no 694 to 710 That poetry is the spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings: it takes its origin from emotion recollected in tranquility: the emotion is contemplated till, by a species of reaction, the tranquility gradually disappears, and an emotion, kindred to that which was before the subject of contemplation, is gradually produced, and does itself actually exist in the mind. In this mood successful composition generally begins, and in a mood similar to this it is carried on; but the emotion, of whatever kind, and in whatever degree, from various causes, is qualified by various pleasures, so that in describing any passions whatsoever, which are voluntarily described, the mind will, upon the whole, be in a state of enjoyment. If Nature be thus cautious to preserve in a state of enjoyment a being so employed, the Poet ought to profit by the lesson held forth to him, and ought especially to take care, that, whatever passions he communicates to his Reader, those passions, if his Reader’s mind be sound and vigorous, should always be accompanied with an overbalance of pleasure. ***************************************************************************

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