Friday, 20 March 2015

Teaching of Translation and Deconstruction of Textual Praxis

Dr. D. B. Gavani

Teaching of Translation and Deconstruction of Textual Praxis

The phenomenal growth and rapid development of translation studies is the recent trend setting in 21st century.  Actually the terrain of translation has emerged during 1980s with regard to lay a greater emphasis on syntactic and semantic meanings enthralling semiotics of the language and its cultural entities. Today these translation studies are amassing the wide variety of fields like linguistics, literary studies, history, psychology, anthropology and economics. The translation is meant to transliterate the original cultural ideas into another cultural world. To put it in simple words translation is a process of putting forth our feelings, emotions and thoughts from mother tongue to other tongue or vis-√†-vis. Sometimes mother tongue becomes other tongue and other tongue the mother tongue depending upon the given temporal and spatial situations in which the translator plays a very pivotal role in equilibrium of cultural devices. The mother tongue may be Kikuyu, Spanish, Russian, Italian, French, German or Englishes and the other tongue includes Kannada, Telagu, Tamil, Bengali or Hindi – or vice versa. The mother tongue always represents the expression of thoughts and ideas in the most homogeneous order and makes the speaker more confident of his/ her communication in everyday life.  The other tongue constitutes the heterogeneous world where the cultural identities are exuded by apartheid, marginalized, downtrodden or subaltern or Dalit concerns and their inner circle where their boundaries are fixed by the hegemony of sociology. I am just foregrounding this ideology to disseminate the knowledge of the present PU First year English text and the forthcoming PU Second Year English text in the post colonial understanding of the literal and linguistic meanings.
I would like to focus on the lessons in the PU First Year English textbook. ‘The Gentleman of Jungle’, written by Jomo Kenyatta, the First President of Kenya whose imaginary world locates and resembles George Orwell’s Animal Farm, is an endorsement of the backwardness as far as class and caste system is concerned. The social hierarchy is well ridiculed with animal world where men have perchance no place except their subjugated prison hole. The finest translation of culture is found in K. P. Purna Chandra Tejashwi’s “Around the Medicinal Creeper” that co-opts the paradigm shift in the narratology of the subject matter in the novel “The Mistress of Spices” by Chitra Banerjee Divakaruni. The process of the translation KMS has tried to maintain the cultural values of Post Modern Kannada Literature as propagated by KPP Tejashwi. The nostalgia and pain circumvents in the story “ Oru Manushyan” written by V M Basheer where diasporic feelings are haunted by indentured labours, money lenders, watchmen, soldiers and so on. It is a question of survival by learning to write their addresses in English. “May... God help you” may not suffice the semiotic expression as a clich√© at the end of the story. Translation as a discovery marvels the transformation in the lives of people like Babar Ali whose life portrayal by Samarpita M Sharma has been meticulously designed as a designated deed with dignity of service. Rowena Hill has translated a poem written by Mudnakudu Chinnaswamy viz., ‘Nanondu Maravadare’ into English entitled ‘If I was a Tree’ which has a lackadaisical attitude in elevating the cultural moorings that the poet expresses in Kannada from the spectrum of society he belongs to. Translation must be an innovative and intuitive phenomenon rather than pouring out of equivalent verbose in both the languages. That is why the translator should know the basic problems that s/he faces at the time of translating well known text from source language into target language. What am I translating? Why am I translating? Who am I translating? To whom am I translating? – these are the questions that translator should introspect and speculate the novel strategies, methods   and techniques of translatability. R. K. Narayan is at his best in exhibiting the art of writing in Indian English with colloquial expressions upholding cultural ethos in his works. The Farmer’s Wife is written by P Lalita Kumari under the pen name of ‘Volga’ and translated by Vasanth Kannbiran into English. It is a pathetic note on the farmers’ suicide in India that excelled from the last decade in rampant way. It denotes the subaltern state of living in post colonial era where the marginalized or the last neglected person of this society has no voice to raise against the authority or elite masters or governmental entities. The life of Frederick Douglass throws light upon the Afro- American diaspora wherein the slavery is celebrated as a carnival of human suffering that demarcates the apathy of colour discrimination and class conflict in American society stating ‘the darkest hours of my career in slavery’.  It is poverty that forges character is profusely precipitated in the poem “The Old Woman” by Arun Kolatkar. It portrays an agony of neglected or destitute woman who begs at the foothills of Jejuri.  Shaheen Sultan Dhanji has translated an Urdu poem entitled “Do Not Ask of Me, My Love” written by Faiz Ahmed Faiz, the renowned Indian Urdu poet. It’s an immortalized ghazal that exemplifies the true love. 
Translation has to do with authority and legitimacy and ultimately, with power, which is precisely why it has been and continues to be the subject of so many acrimonious debates. Translation is not just a “window opened on the another world” or some pious platitude. Rather, translation is a channel opened, often not without a certain reluctance, through which foreign influences penetrate into native culture, challenge it and even to contribute to subverting it. “When you offer a translation to a nation”, says Victor Hugo, “that nation will almost always look on the translation as a act of violence against itself”. Translations are potentially threatening precisely because they confront the receiving culture with another, the different way of looking at life and society, and the way that can be seen subversive and must therefore kept out. That is what instigates me to give a small advice to my highly intellectual teaching fraternity friends to pay attention at the time of teaching these lessons to the rural or sub-urban students with great dexterity and uncanny skills should be inculcated to decipher the knowledge of two different cultures and their relevance in an android oriented nano world. These lessons would definitely bring a drastic change in the process of shaping career and personality of students because the moral and ethical values of colonized counties are amalgamated and carried forward to Gen Next with jelly bean technical devices. Again we are looking back for our colonial masters to dictate terms to address the current situations. India, no more a land of sages and saints, black magicians, snake charmers and drum beaters as onlookers put her, is a New Paradise wherein our youths can mould their tenacity and sagacity to explore new horizons of upholding and comprehending the naked reality with their inquisitive inquiry into the text they go through even at PU Second Year English text too.  
Translation of literature poses serious problems for the translator because creative writing uses words with multiple purposes. Here content and form are equally important. The ancient Indian theoretician Anandavardhana has stated that the distinctive feature of literary/poetic language is Oral: Poetic devices embellish literary language, which makes it a challenging task for the translator to carry it over to another language dhvani or the range of suggestions contained in the work. The translator has to bring this world of connotations alive in the TL also, which is not a mean task. S/he also has to reproduce the stylistic beauty of the SL text. The beauty of One Hundred Years of Solitude, for example, lies in the splendour of Marquez's magical realism; the translator has to be skilled in both Spanish and English to do justice to the SL text. Idioms and metaphors which abound in poetic use of the language are often difficult to recapture in the TL because of the structural differences between languages. In fact some feel that complete translatability is not a criterion of good craftsmanship as far as a literary work is concerned. Justin O'Brien who has translated Camus from French into English, quotes Raymond Guerin: “the most convincing criterion of the quality of a work is the fact that it can only be translated with difficulty, for if it passes readily into another language without losing its essence, then it must have no particular essence or at least not one of the rarest”. It is the awareness of all these challenges that is behind the concept of the impossibility of perfect equivalence.
The challenges multiply when the SL text is in verse, as the language of poetry is densely packed with allusions and other poetic ornaments like metre and figures of speech. The verse form is the most difficult to transfer to another language as the natural rhythm and syllabic patterns of languages differ from each other. How does one translate the majestic sweep of Shakespeare's blank verse into an Indian language? Nobody can deny that the metre and rhythm of the verse add to its grandeur. The sonnet with its stipulations of 14 lines and a specific rhyme scheme is hard to reproduce in a language that is completely different in speech rhythm and metre. In the case of a creative work there is a perfect marriage of form and content; the good translator has to render both adequately. This is perhaps why Robert Frost made the observation that poetry is what gets lost in translation.
The job of the translator is made easier if the TL reader does not know the SL. Translations of major works of literature can be taken as examples. As far as an Indian reader is concerned, it would be difficult to read Tolstoy or Cervantes or Victor Hugo in the original. But if it is to be well received, the translation cannot appear to be too ‘foreign' in style, either. In such cases the translator has to smooth over the linguistic and stylistic peculiarities and make the text accessible to the reader. Here the emphasis is on making the text reader-friendly and hence the translator can take a few liberties in translation.
What is apparent is that translation is essentially a reader-oriented or listener-oriented activity. The translator has to keep this in mind when translating and this will inform his/her choice of translation method. This also means that the translator has to correctly interpret the context in which the SL text is situated. This is especially true of culture-specific references. For example, translation of the English ‘Hi!' into Hindi is a case in point. This can be translated into ‘Namaste' and it cannot be treated as wrong translation. But the casualness of the English greeting is not recreated by the Hindi equivalent. If the greeting is from one friend to another, ‘Namaste' will not work as it is far too formal for the context. The translator has to understand the reality of the situation and work accordingly.
Susan Bassnett suggests various steps in this context. A translator when faced with a difficult term/phrase should accept that the SL phrase is untranslatable in the TL at the linguistic level. S/he will have to consider the range of TL terms that are available and decide on the equivalent word on the basis of the socio-cultural context or, if it is a conversation, on the basis of gender and age. When the SL is translated into the TL, what is more important is that the “invariant if it is a conversation core of the SL phrase in its two referential systems (the particular system of the text and the system of culture out of which the text has sprung)” has been reproduced. It has often been pointed out that Shakespeare's famous sonnet “Shall I compare thee to a summer's day” presents a thorny problem for translators. In the Indian context, summer is not a pleasant time and the comparison to summer will not be taken as a compliment. The translator will have to bear this in mind. If the reader is to understand the nature of the compliment, the translator will have to come up with a cultural equivalent.
Similarly if Tolstoy is considered to be a great writer by everybody and not just Russians, obviously the text has been communicated without distortions to the reading public in general. Nida underlines this point when he says “the ultimate purpose of the translation, in terms of its impact upon its intended audience, is a fundamental factor in any evaluation of translations”. 
Rabindranath Tagore translated his Bengali poems into English for which he received the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1913.On this occasion the Swedish Academy gave the award for the English translations that Tagore had done himself and not for the originals in Bengali, to which they had no access. The Institution´s official statement made clear the reasons for giving the award:... For the author himself, who by education and practice is a poet in his native Indian tongue, has bestowed upon the poems a new dress, alike perfect in form...This has made them accessible to all in England, America, and the entire Western world...; because... with consummate skill, he has made his poetic thought, expressed in his own English words, a part of the literature of the West. Luigi Pirandello, the Sicilian novelist, playwright and author of ‘Six Characters in Search of an Author’, amongst other titles, wrote many of his works in Sicilian dialect which he later translated into Italian. He was the Nobel Prize winner for Literature in 1934. The Irish novelist and playwright Samuel Beckett, voluntarily exiled in Paris, started by writing in English which he later translated into French, but ended up writing in French and translating himself back into English. He was the Nobel Prize winner for Literature in 1969. The Polish writer, Isaac Bashevis Singer, who had emigrated to the United States in 1935 and translated many of his works from Yiddish to English at times with the help of another translator, was the Nobel Prize winner for Literature in 1978. The Polish writer and poet of Lithuanian origin, Czeslaw Milosz, who lived in the United States for many years and translated his own work from Polish into English, received the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1980. Joseph Brodsky, who in the USA translated many of his poems from Russian into English, was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1987.      

By and large, I will be failing in my duties if I do not mention my deep sense of gratitude to the Chairperson, Co-ordinator and Members of PU English Textbook Committee for their sincere venture to fulfil the vision and mission of student centric quality education by imparting this material to make the teaching-learning process more effective and meaningful with specific goals and sufficing the need of an hour of all the stake holders.  Lastly, my dream rests upon the Glocalectics that all my colleagues and students strive upon with benign zeal in glocalized cosmos. 


Dr. D. B. Gavani

Astrophil and Stella – Philip Sidney

The names Astrophil and Stella mean Star-lover and Star, suggesting the impossibility of their union because of the distance between them
The sequence, which like all Renaissance sequences is not a realistic autobiography, is about a man, Astrophil who is attracted to and in pursuit of a married woman, called Stella. On stealing a first kiss from Stella whilst she is asleep the male protagonist worries about her reaction lest she should find out, but later on chides himself for not taking advantage of the situation. He then goes on to recount how he is filled with hopes one minute and despair the next, whilst trying in vain to pursue her. In constantly being refused, he feels angered and offends her but does not wait too long before trying to seduce her yet again. After a few more refusals he is moved to desperation, evoking his misery in the last few sonnets.
In the opening sonnet Sidney explains how he painfully resorted to every aid to compose his sequence, 'oft turning others' leaves' but that his impotence grew to a climax whereby it dawned on him to 'look in thy heart and write.' In writing about how to compose a love sonnet he did just that and what formed itself on the page before him was pure spontaneous feeling. However it is apparent that the hero is a combination of both the besotted lover and the self-critical poet. His emotional conflicts increase as he grows aware of his sexual needs despite his knowing that he is ultimately a product of Protestant training and needs to restrain his longings. It is a perpetual war of desire against reason and nature against nurture. Moreover he knows that no matter how much he craves for Stella it is a lost battle already and this is where the endless laments emerge. This incessant interplay of opposing forces that is of paradoxes is also considered an essential part of the sonnet structure.
The impossibility of their union reflected in the title is reinforced in the sequence. Astrophil is adept at colouring a dark and sombre picture of his love life as, whilst his starlit stage has indeed become dark and dangerous, Stella's eyes which he calls, 'nature's chiefest work' are also black, 'sweet black which vailes the heav'nly eye.' The recurring metaphor of blackness is a result of his increasing preoccupations and he broods over the fact that his once starlit world seems none other than his own living hell. The Christian opposition of heaven and hell is evident from the verse in sonnet 2, 'No doome should make one's heav'n become his hell.' Whilst the word 'doome' suggests the speaker's Christian damnation, it is nothing more than Stella's rebuttal.
Astrophil's obsession with conquering Stella is further amplified when he invokes Morpheus, the son of Somnus, god of sleep who appears to dreamers in human shape and who will therefore bring Stella with him. He cannot bank on meeting Stella in the waking world, so he succumbs to and relies on the world of sleep even though he is well aware of its artifice.
Sidney's sequence also reverberates with one of Homer's epics. It has been suggested that the 108 sonnets represent the 108 suitors in Homer's Penelope, who played a game of trying to hit a stone called the Penelope stone as a way of deciding who would win and court her. Just as the wooers banked on their fate pathetically and were aware of disappointment, so is Astrophil embarking on the same painful and disappointing journey.
Astrophil presents Stella as his sun, which lights his world and warms his spirits yet as is always the case he finds a downside to this, saying that, moreover, 'it burnes', concluding in the couplet that 'that my sunne go downe with meeker beames to bed.' It is evident that he wants these burning beams to become meeker, really referring to Stella's meekness or rather submission to him in bed. The frequent use of sexual allusions is used in the sequence to portray the problematic nature of Astrophil's paradoxical obsession as he craves for her love but for her sex too.
Critical Summary:
In the first sonnet of Astrophel and Stella, Astrophel begins the sonnet with why he is writing the sonnet. He says that “fain in verse my love to show” so his motivation for writing this sonnet is to appeal to a woman. Astrophel uses strong diction such as “pleasure” and “pain”. Using these two strong opposing words, it emphasizes his point that she will get pleasure if he is in pain. His use of strong diction also demonstrates that he is emotionally appealing to the reader or using pathos. He wants the reader to feel pity for him because his lover will not listen to him unless he is in pain. However he hopes that his pain will cause her to want to read the sonnet when he says “knowledge might pity win.” There is a shift in his feelings from being frustrated and hurt to hopeful. But then he switches back to being discouraged because he does not know what he should write. He describes his words as “halting forth.” He does not know how to express the pain he is in. At the end of the sonnet he says he will write from his heart, “look in thy heart and write.” This phrase sets up the rest of series of sonnets because it is the reason he is writing the sonnets. He decides the only way to write the sonnet is not to worry about what he is writing but to just write from his heart. The phrase also presents his final decision. Throughout the sonnet, Astrophel debates whether he should just write from his heart or to be careful about what he writes. He does not want his writing to be criticized so he is afraid to write his true feelings.
The author opens this first sonnet by explaining his motivation for composing the sonnet sequence. He believes that if his love were to read the sonnets, she would eventually return his affection. He argues that her pleasure in his pain would cause her to read his sonnets, and her reading of the sonnets would allow her to know the extent of his affection, which might make her pity the author's situation-and this pity may transform into grace and love.
One Day I Wrote Her Name – Edmund Spenser
This lyric poem touches on a classical theme: the relation between time and immortality. Edmund Spenser employs figurative language to evoke not only imagery but also an emotional response from the reader.
The poem shows us a vivid picture: the couple is along the seaside, the man is trying to write the lady’s name on the sand, but waves come and wash it away. Then he writes again, but all in vain. The lady persuades him to give up and says that as time passes, she will also die just as the name wiped out by tide. But the man holds a different point of view: He believes his verses will make her immortal.
Spenser metaphorically compares tide rising and falling to the process of life. Also, in the sentence “But came the tyde, and made my paynes his pray”, the poet personifies the seawater to a beast and compares the “name” to “his pray”, which implies that time and tide wait for no man, and that everyone is doomed to die. The lady in this poem feels insecure about time fleeting, while the man insists on “our love shall live, and later life renew”.
Does anything in the world last? After I read the poem, I ask myself this question spontaneously. Almost everything has been changing, for instance, personalitythoughtemotionvaluesand so on and so forth. So sometimes I even feel that making a promise just like joking, because no one can be certain of never changing.
However, writing is different. Many people get used to keeping a dairy, because no matter how many years have passed, the feelings reflecting at the moment recorded on the notebook will never fade away. Just as the poet who not merely writes his lovers name on the sand but also in his poem. Even though the name on the sand is wiped away by the tide, the name in the poem is still there, which become an eternity.
In this poem Edmund Spenser uses the poetic elements of quatrains, couplets, and a sestet at the end. In the poem the quatrains transition into couplets. The first stanza is a quatrain. The rhyme scheme is ABAB. The speaker uses imagery to convey his feelings for his wife. The speaker is on a beach writing the name of his lover on the sand. It was washed away by the tide. Then he attempted to write it again, but the tide washed it away. He feels that the ocean is taunting him and making him suffer. The water is personified as someone who inflicts pain on the speaker. His wife steps in to tell the speaker that he needs to stop what he is doing and is vain for his efforts. The second stanza is a quatrain with the rhyme scheme of ABAB. His wife says that it is that of mortals to attempt to immortalize that which isn’t in existence any longer. His wife compares herself to the vain attempt of immortality and says that she will “wash away” just like her name was washed away by the tide. The last stanza is a sestet. The rhyme scheme is ABABCC. The speaker doesn’t believe that to be true. He feels that others things should die but she should be able to live forever. Even if death occurs and she does die, she will live forever in infamy. The fame will live on forever in place of her demise. He thinks that what he feels about her and that her values shall live for eternity. Even if his wife dies he feels that she is up in heaven where she belongs. Everyone in the world will eventually have to die. The love between the speaker and his lover shall flourish and begin anew when he comes and meets her in heaven.  In this poem it exemplifies the hero journey stage of “The Return.” In the poem the main character has to return to a place where he feels closest to his wife. The beach is a symbol of where the speaker feels most comfortable and at peace. The speaker can let his feelings out and truly express himself. 

Shall I Compare Thee – William Shakespeare
The speaker opens the poem with a question addressed to the beloved: “Shall I compare thee to a summer’s day?” The next eleven lines are devoted to such a comparison. In line 2, the speaker stipulates what mainly differentiates the young man from the summer’s day: he is “more lovely and more temperate.” Summer’s days tend toward extremes: they are shaken by “rough winds”; in them, the sun (“the eye of heaven”) often shines “too hot,” or too dim. And summer is fleeting: its date is too short, and it leads to the withering of autumn, as “every fair from fair sometime declines.” The final quatrain of the sonnet tells how the beloved differs from the summer in that respect: his beauty will last forever (“Thy eternal summer shall not fade...”) and never die. In the couplet, the speaker explains how the beloved’s beauty will accomplish this feat, and not perish because it is preserved in the poem, which will last forever; it will live “as long as men can breathe or eyes can see.”
This sonnet is certainly the most famous in the sequence of Shakespeare’s sonnets; it may be the most famous lyric poem in English. Among Shakespeare’s works, only lines such as “To be or not to be” and “Romeo, Romeo, wherefore art thou Romeo?” are better-known. This is not to say that it is at all the best or most interesting or most beautiful of the sonnets; but the simplicity and loveliness of its praise of the beloved has guaranteed its place.
On the surface, the poem is simply a statement of praise about the beauty of the beloved; summer tends to unpleasant extremes of windiness and heat, but the beloved is always mild and temperate. Summer is incidentally personified as the “eye of heaven” with its “gold complexion”; the imagery throughout is simple and unaffected, with the “darling buds of May” giving way to the “eternal summer”, which the speaker promises the beloved. The language, too, is comparatively unadorned for the sonnets; it is not heavy with alliteration or assonance, and nearly every line is its own self-contained clause—almost every line ends with some punctuation, which effects a pause.
This sonnet is the first poem in the sonnets not to explicitly encourage the young man to have children. The “procreation” sequence of the first 17 sonnets ended with the speaker’s realization that the young man might not need children to preserve his beauty; he could also live, the speaker writes at the end of Sonnet 17, “in my rhyme.” Sonnet 18, then, is the first “rhyme”—the speaker’s first attempt to preserve the young man’s beauty for all time. An important theme of the sonnet (as it is an important theme throughout much of the sequence) is the power of the speaker’s poem to defy time and last forever, carrying the beauty of the beloved down to future generations. The beloved’s “eternal summer” shall not fade precisely because it is embodied in the sonnet: “So long as men can breathe or eyes can see,” the speaker writes in the couplet, “So long lives this, and this gives life to thee.”

When in Disgrace in Men’s Eyes – William Shakespeare
Sonnet 29 shows the poet at his most insecure and troubled. He feels unlucky, shamed, and fiercely jealous of those around him. What causes the poet's anguish will remain a mystery; as will the answer to whether the sonnets are autobiographical.
However, an examination of Shakespeare’s life around the time he wrote Sonnet 29 reveals two traumatic events that may have shaped the theme of the sonnet. In 1592 the London theatres closed due to a severe outbreak of plague. Although it is possible that Shakespeare toured the outlying areas of London, it is almost certain that he left the theatre entirely during this time to work on his sonnets and narrative poems. The closing of the playhouses made it hard for Shakespeare and other actors of the day to earn a living. With plague and poverty looming it is expected that he would feel "in disgrace with fortune" (1).
Moreover, in 1592 there came a scathing attack on Shakespeare by dramatist Robert Greene, who, in a deathbed diary (A Groats-worth of Wit), warned three of his fellow university-educated playwrights: "There is an upstart Crow, beautified with our feathers, that with his Tygers heart wrapt in a Players hide, supposes he is as well able to bombast out a blanke verse as the best of you; and, beeing an absolute Johannes factotum, is in his owne conceit the only Shakescene in a countrey."
One can only imagine what grief this assault – this deathbed assault – must have caused Shakespeare. Greene was nothing if not thorough: first, using a line from Shakespeare’s own 3 Henry VI (1.4.138), he describes Shakespeare as a pompous, scheming, vicious ingrate, riding the coattails of better writers (no doubt Shakespeare performed in a play Greene had himself written; then he adds that Shakespeare was a conceited ("only Shakescene") and insignificant jack of all trades (a "Johannes factotum").
Greene lets even more insults fly as he continues: "O that I might intreat your rare wits to be imploied in more profitable courses: & let those Apes imitate your past excellence, and never more acquaint them with your admired inventions, for it is pity men of such rare wits should be subject to the pleasures of such rude groomes." 1
It seems very possible such events are connected to the poet’s distressed declaration in line 8: "With what I most enjoy contented least."
All is not lost, however, for the sonnet ends with a positive affirmation that the poet can combat his anguish with the "sweet love" (13) of his dear friend.
The emotional state of the speaker in Sonnet 29 is one of depression: in the first line, he assumes himself to be "in disgrace with fortune," meaning he has been having bad luck. He also feels in disgrace with "men's eyes," implying that the general public looks on him unfavorably. This could be real or imagined, but it is enforced in line 2, when he bemoans his "outcast state." Here, "state" refers to a state of being, and in this case, he is cast out from society.
Lines 3-4 make allusion to Job of the Old Testament in the Bible, who was cast out onto a dung heap and called to a God who didn't listen. The poet finds himself in the same situation: Heaven personified is God, and in this case he is "deaf," making the poet's cries "bootless," or useless. The idea of cursing one's fate also hearkens to Job, who cursed himself after falling out of God's favor.
The speaker finds himself envying what others have, and in lines 5-9 he sees almost everyone as having something he lacks. He wishes to be like "one more rich in hope," perhaps meaning hopeful or literally wealthy; "featured like him," refers to someone who is handsome, with beautiful features; and another is "with friends possessed," or popular, unlike the poet (as has been established in the first two lines). In line 7, he envies the artistic talent of one man, and the opportunities afforded someone else.
The simile of a lark is developed in lines 10-12, when the speaker describes the effect that a thought of his love has on his "state," or emotional well-being. The fact that the lark rises from the "sullen earth" at "break of day" implies that the day is much happier than the night; day break is compared to the dawning of a thought of the beloved. As the lark "sings hymns at heaven's gate," so the poet's soul is invigorated with the thought of the fair lord, and seems to sing to the sky with rejuvenated hope.
The final couplet of Sonnet 29 declares that this joyfulness brought about by a thought of the fair lord is enough to convince the speaker that he is better off than royalty. Here, "state" is a pun: it carries the meaning of emotional well-being, as it did earlier in the poem, and suggests that the love of the fair lord makes the speaker so happy that all the wealth of a king would not be better. But it also refers to a nation, or a kingdom.

To Celia – Ben Jonson
To Celia is a love poem with a simple four line rhyme scheme (abcbabcb), written in first person. The overall tone of the poem is dreamy, optimistic, persistent, and gullibly innocent. The rhythm is smooth, and pensive, and seems to fall into an iambic pentameter. The poem gives the reader an intimate sense of this man’s love, and obsession for the woman of his desire, Celia. I interpreted this poem as having a theme of lost love. I imagined that Celia is his ex-lover, he still is in love with her, and wants her to come back to him.
In the first stanza, the strong feelings he has for her are expressed metaphorically by comparing his love to drinking wine, and Jove’s Nectar, an elixir for immortality. He is intoxicated by her, and can’t live without her. In the first line “Drink to me, only with thine eyes And I will pledge with mine”, he is asking Celia to look at him with her eyes, and tell him she still loves him, he will in turn promise himself to her. “Or leave a kiss but in the cup And I\'ll not look for wine” meaning If that is too much to ask, at least show him in some way that she still cares for him, and that will as least satisfy him. “The thirst that from the soul doth rise Doth ask a drink divine”, the desire and love he has for her is burning deep inside of him, and he needs her. “But might I of Jove\'s nectar sup I would not change for thine”, meaning he cannot live without her. If he were given the gift of immortality, he would not take it just to be with her.
A wreath is a symbol of eternity, in the second stanza, he expresses eternal love for her by metaphorically comparing it to the rosy wreath. I believe the wreath also may represent an apology. In the first line of the second stanza, “I sent thee late a rosy wreath Not so much honoring thee”, I believe he is talking about the mistakes he made. He used the word late, implying that he was too late showing her his eternal love for her, and is now not able to have her, honoring being another word for having. “As giving it a hope that there It could not withered be”, he is telling her he loves her hoping their love is not lost. “But thou thereon didst only breath And sent\'st it back to me”, she doesn’t want to listen to him anymore, takes a deep breath or sigh, and does not accept his apology. “Since, when it grows and smells, I swear, Not of itself but thee”, No matter what happens, I will always love you, and a piece of you will always be with me.
Some techniques used in this poem are Alliteration, the use of metaphors, personification, irony, hyperbole, and possibly allegory. Alliteration can be identified in this poem by the words that are stressed such as (highlighted in green above) in the first stanza, stresses are placed on Drink, cup, kiss, and divine. Metaphors were used to describe his love for Celia, such as drinking the wine, the elixir of eternal life, and the rosy wreath. Personification is used in personifying Celia’s eyes, as if they could speak, and the thirst takes on a human quality of rising, and asking for a drink. I thought irony was present when Celia sent the wreath back, or denied his apology. The man disregarded this action, and continued with his protest of love for her. I think hyperbole was used a lot in this poem. For example the entire poem seems to be a hyperbole. It is extremely exaggerated, and in particular, the lines “But might I of Jove\'s nectar sup I would not change for thine”, and “Since, when it grows and smells, I swear, Not of itself but thee.” The images are unrealistic, and cannot be taken literally. I thought allegory can be identified in this poem, because if you read through the poem once, you may just interpret a man courting a woman, and the woman literally returning his gift to him, not acknowledging him. However I felt that these two people were at once very close. They loved each other, and the man did something that caused them to break up. He still is madly in love with her, and would do anything to get her back. He apologizes to her, but it is not enough. The literal meaning is obvious, but the symbolic meaning of the poets word choices lead to my interpretation. I believe three main important concepts that influence the entire poems message would be word choice, tone, and symbols.
Word choice is important in this poem, because the words used give the reader a detailed understanding of what the poet is trying to say. The words also create the imagery of the poem, and set up the meaning of the symbols used throughout. For example the whole first stanza is surrounded by words that are related to drinking wine, such as drink, cup, wine, thirst, and nectar. The words make it easy for the reader to determine that he is comparing the love he has for Celia to drinking wine, and the nectar of Jove’s. Her love is intoxicating, and worth more than anything to him. In the second stanza, the word choice I noticed was more important. The words late, rosy wreath, honouring, withered, breath, grows, smell, and swear, to me all had in depth meaning. For example late lead me to believe he had made a mistake. Rosy wreath suggested eternal love, and an apology. Honouring took on the meaning of having. Withered reminded me of dyeing, and lost love. Breath implied her presence, and disapproval. Grows, tells the reader that his love for her has only gotten stronger. Smell implies a sense of lingering, as if her essence is still all around him. Swear implies a promise to oneself, and he promises to always love her.
The tone of the poem I described as dreamy, optimistic, persistent, and gullibly innocent. I think this tone is important in getting the poets mood across to the reader. The rhythm of the poem contributes to the tone because it is smooth and pensive. The poem is read in a smooth whimsical way, and slightly imploring. I thought it was dreamy because of the flowery language used, and the whimsical way it read through. Optimistic because he is hopeful that Celia still loves him, persistent, because he goes into length describing his love, and gullibly innocent, because even though it is clear Celia wants nothing to do with him anymore, he still holds onto the love he has for her.
The symbols I thought were interesting, and really led me to discovering an underlying meaning to this poem. Examples of the symbol used in this poem are the eyes, Jove’s Nectar, the rosy wreath, and Celia’s breath. When the poet opens with mentioning thine eyes, it symbolizes that they are close, and he knows what she is feeling without her speaking. The eyes create intimacy in the poem. Jove’s Nectar symbolizes immortality, and his love. His love will never die for her. The rosy wreath symbolizes eternity, on how he will love her forever, and also I believe the wreath serves as a symbol for the apology he is giving her. Celia’s breath symbolizes her release from him. She does not take him in, but exhales. This symbolizes her rejecting him. I think these symbols were very influential in the way I interpreted this poem.
In conclusion, I really enjoyed this poem, and digging into its underlying meaning. At first I found the language very hard to follow, and read it so many times I now have it memorized. I researched other people’s thoughts online, and realized that I had taken a different perspective on the poem compared to other reviews. I always find it interesting to see how differently people think, and how the meanings of these poems take life in the individual depending on their own experiences.

My Sweetest Lesbia – Thomas Campion
Thomas Campion belongs to that fascinating tradition of medically-trained poets, the analysis of which deserves a book rather than a blog. He was born in London in 1567, left Cambridge without a degree, briefly studied law, but ultimately graduated from the University of Caen with an MD. After practising medicine in London he later returned to the continent as a gentleman-soldier. He is believed to have died of the plague in London in 1620.
The Romance languages he heard and read must surely have contributed to the training of his poetic "ear". He was not simply a melodist but an experimenter; part of the poetic movement which was then seeking to adapt quantitative measure to the English line. All the same, he is rightly considered to be the most flawless lyricist of the Elizabethan poets. No lutenist or madrigal choir is needed: his "airs" sing from the page. He was himself a composer and he collaborated with other composers. In his Preface to the Reader from P Rossiter's 1601 Book of Ayres, he declared "What epigrams are in poetry, the same are airs in music, then in their chief perfection when they were short." Within the relative brevity, and alongside the mellifluous cadence, Campion does more than make music: he shows us nuanced, often painful, always convincing human emotions. His poetry is the lute on which "passion" plays. As he says in "Corinna", "For when of pleasure she does sing, / My thoughts enjoy a sudden spring; / But if she doth of sorrow speak, / Even from my heart the strings do break."
This week's poem, "My Sweetest Lesbia", is sometimes described as a translation. Its inspiration is the Latin poet Catullus's poem, Carmen V, which begins "Vivamus mea Lesbia, atque amemus". Campion opens, more or less, with Catullus's first six lines. But his goal is to turn the poem into a song – a strophic song with a refrain. He soon departs from the Latin. Catullus's erotic crescendo ("Give me a thousand kisses, then another hundred / then another thousand, then a second hundred … ") completely disappears. Instead, Campion takes from the Latin poem the antithetical ideas of brief light and never-ending night, and weaves them into a refrain, delicately varied at each appearance.
Delicacy is the key to this poem. Campion's lines are not typically uniform, and the beauty of his rhythm often lies in the variation of line-length. However, within this poem's uniform lines, his syntax creates similarly graceful, if lighter, pauses. The iambic pentameter treads on tiptoe. Delicacy for Campion is not wafty poetic fragility, but a habit of mind – shown in the wit and tact which move him delightfully to turn Catullus's "senum" ("old men") into "the sager sort". But admittedly the poem's tone is on the sombre side: if Carmen V was a Song of Innocence, this is a Song of Experience.
I don't suppose "My Sweetest Lesbia" has even been included in an anti-war anthology, but it embodies a pacifist statement: it pits the hedonist's sensible and simple argument against "fools" who "waste their little light / And seek with pain the ever-during night". Campion, we remember, knew battlefields first-hand, and, as a doctor, he may well have closed the eyes of the dead.
The conclusion is hardly straightforward. Is the speaker asking Lesbia to close his eyes and then kiss him? Is it her memory of him that will "crown" his love? The "little light" seems full of possible metaphor, too. That Arcadian image of the celebrating lovers and their "sweet pastimes" at the tomb-side seems to take a graceful turn from artifice into generous humanity. The speaker is giving life and love permission to continue without him – and possibly to continue for Lesbia.
It is Campion's wonderful art to be seriously playful. Catullus is playful, too, but more intense; the Elizabethan keeps lusty defiance in check. "My Sweetest Lesbia" is only partly a carpe diem poem. It moves us because it celebrates love without begging or bragging, and because of the pathos of its minor key; its unconsoled, recurring awareness of that "ever-during night".

Methods of Teaching English Language

Dr. D. B. Gavani

Methods of Teaching English Language
1.     The Grammar Translation Method
At the height of the Communicative Approach to language learning in the 1980s and early 1990s it became fashionable in some quarters to deride so-called "old-fashioned" methods and, in particular, something broadly labelled "Grammar Translation". There were numerous reasons for this but principally it was felt that translation itself was an academic exercise rather than one which would actually help learners to use language, and an overt focus on grammar was to learn about the target language rather than to learn it.
As with many other methods and approaches, Grammar Translation tended to be referred to in the past tense as if it no longer existed and had died out to be replaced world-wide by the fun and motivation of the communicative classroom. If we examine the principal features of Grammar Translation, however, we will see that not only has it not disappeared but that many of its characteristics have been central to language teaching throughout the ages and are still valid today.
The Grammar Translation method embraces a wide range of approaches but, broadly speaking, foreign language study is seen as a mental discipline, the goal of which may be to read literature in its original form or simply to be a form of intellectual development. The basic approach is to analyze and study the grammatical rules of the language, usually in an order roughly matching the traditional order of the grammar of Kannada, and then to practise manipulating grammatical structures through the means of translation both into and from the mother tongue.
The method is very much based on the written word and texts are widely in evidence. A typical approach would be to present the rules of a particular item of grammar, illustrate its use by including the item several times in a text, and practise using the item through writing sentences and translating it into the mother tongue. The text is often accompanied by a vocabulary list consisting of new lexical items used in the text together with the mother tongue translation. Accurate use of language items is central to this approach.
Generally speaking, the medium of instruction is the mother tongue, which is used to explain conceptual problems and to discuss the use of a particular grammatical structure. It all sounds rather dull but it can be argued that the Grammar Translation method has over the years had a remarkable success. Millions of people have successfully learnt foreign languages to a high degree of proficiency and, in numerous cases, without any contact whatsoever with native speakers of the language as was the case in India.
There are certain types of learner who respond very positively to a grammatical syllabus as it can give them both a set of clear objectives and a clear sense of achievement. Other learners need the security of the mother tongue and the opportunity to relate grammatical structures to mother tongue equivalents. Above all, this type of approach can give learners a basic foundation upon which they can then build their communicative skills.
Applied wholesale of course, it can also be boring for many learners and a quick look at foreign language course books from the 1950s and 1960s, for example, will soon reveal the non-communicative nature of the language used. Using the more enlightened principles of the Communicative Approach, however, and combining these with the systematic approach of Grammar Translation, may well be the perfect combination for many learners. On the one hand they have motivating communicative activities that help to promote their fluency and, on the other, they gradually acquire a sound and accurate basis in the grammar of the language. This combined approach is reflected in many of the EFL course books currently being published and, amongst other things, suggests that the Grammar Translation method, far from being dead, is very much alive and kicking as we enter the 21st century.
Without a sound knowledge of the grammatical basis of the language it can be argued that the learner is in possession of nothing more than a selection of communicative phrases which are perfectly adequate for basic communication but which will be found wanting when the learner is required to perform any kind of sophisticated linguistic task.

2.     The Structural – oral – situational Method
Palmer, Hornby, and other British applied linguist from the 1920s onward developed an approach to methodology that involved systematic principles of selection (the procedures by which lexical and grammatical content was chosen), gradation (principles by which the organization and sequencing of content were determined), andpresentation (techniques used for presentation and practice of items in a course).
The main characteristics of the approach were as follow:
Language teaching begins with the spoken language. Material is taught orally before it is presented in written form. The target language is the language of the classroom. New language points are introduced and practiced situationally. Vocabulary selection procedures are followed to ensure that an essential general service vocabulary is covered. Items of grammar are graded following the principle that simple forms should be taught before complex ones. Reading and writing are introduced once a sufficient lexical and grammatical basis is established.
Theory of Language and Learning
           The theory of language underlying Situational Language Teaching can be characterized as a type of British “structuralism.” Speech was regarded as the basis of language, and structure was viewed as being at the heart of speaking ability.            The theory of learning underlying Situational Language Teaching is a type of behaviorist habit-learning theory. It addresses primarily the processes rather than the conditions of learning. Frisby, for example, cites Palmer’s views as authoritative:
As Palmer has pointed out there are three processes in learning a language-receiving the knowledge or materials, fixing it in the memory by repetition, and using it in actual practice until it becomes a personal skill.
            Like the Direct Method, Situational Language Teaching adopts an inductive approach to the teaching of grammar. The meaning of words and structures is not to be given through explanation in either the native language or the target language.
Design and Objectives:
            The objectives of Situational Language Teaching method are to teach a practical command of the four basic skills of language.  Errors are to be avoided at all costs.
The syllabus:
            In Situational Language Teaching, structures are always taught within sentences, and vocabulary is chosen according to how well it enables sentence patterns to be taught.  Rather, situation refers to manner of presenting and practicing sentence patterns.
Types of learning and teaching activities:
            By situation Pittman means the use of concrete objects, pictures, and regalia, which together with actions ad gestures ca be used to demonstrate the meaning of language items.
            The practice techniques employed generally consist of guided repetition and substitution activities, including chorus repetition, dictation, drills, and controlled oral-based reading and writing tasks. Other oral-practice techniques are sometimes used including pair practice and group work.
Learner roles:   Listen and repeat / more active participation
Teacher roles:  Serves as a model, Conductor of an orchestra, The role of instructional materials
            Situational Language Teaching is dependent on both a textbook and visual aids. Visual aids consist of wall charts, flashcards, pictures, stick figures, and so on.
            The essential features of SLT are seen in the “P-P-P” lesson model that thousands of teachers who studied for the RSA/ Cambridge Certificate in TEFL were required to master in the 1980s and early 1990s, with a lesson having three phrases: Presentation (introduction of a new teaching item in context), Practice (controlled practice of the item), Production (a freer practice phrase)

3.     The Modern Methods:
a.     The Direct Method
Gouin had been one of the first of the nineteenth-century reformers to attempt to build a methodology around observation of child language learning.   L. Sauveur, who used intensive oral interaction in the target language, was employing questions as a way of presenting and eliciting language.
            Natural language learning principles provided the foundation for what came to be known as the Direct Method. Enthusiastic supporters of the Direct Method introduced it in France and Germany, and it became widely known in the United States through its use by Sauveur and Maximilian Berlitz in successful commercial language schools. In practice it stood for the following principles and procedures:
Classroom instruction was conducted exclusively in the target language.
Only everyday vocabulary and sentences were taught.
Grammar was taught inductively.
New teaching points were introduced orally.
Concrete vocabulary was taught through demonstration, objects, and pictures; abstract vocabulary was taught by association of ideas.
Both speech and listening comprehension were taught.
Correct pronunciation and grammar were emphasized.
These principles are seen in the following guidelines for teaching oral language, which are still followed in contemporary Berlitz schools:
Never translate: demonstrate
Never explain: act
Never make a speech: ask question
Never imitate mistakes: correct
Never speak with single words: use sentences
Never speak too much: make students speak much
Never use the book: use your lesson plan
Never jump around: follow your plan
Never go too fast: keep the pace of students
Never speak too slowly: speak naturally

Never speak too loudly: speak naturally
Never be impatient: take it easy
            The teacher reads the passage three times. The first time the teacher reads it at a normal speed, while the students just listen. The second time he reads the passage phrase by phrase, pausing long enough to allow students to write down what they have heard. The last time the teacher again reads at a normal speed, and students check their work.
Getting students to self-correct
            The teacher of the class has the students self-correct by asking them to make choice between what they said and an alternative answer he supplied. There are, however, other ways of getting students to self-correct. For example, a teacher might simply repeat what a student has just said; using a questioning voice to signal to the student that something was wrong with it. Another possibility is for the teacher to repeat what the student said, stopping just before the error. The student knows that the next word was wrong.
 The Audio-Lingual Method, like the Direct Method, is also an oral-based approach. However, it is very different in that rather than emphasizing vocabulary acquisition through exposure to its use in situations, the Audio-Lingual Method drills students in the use of grammatical sentence patterns. It also, unlike the Direct Method, has a strong theoretical base in linguistics and psychology. Its principles:
Language forms do not occur by themselves; they occur most naturally within a context. The native language and the target language have separate linguistic system. Teacher should provide students with a good model. Language learning is a process of habit formation. The more often something is repeated, the stronger the habit and the greater the learning. It is important to prevent learners from making errors. Errors lead to the formation of bad habits. When errors do occur, they should be immediately corrected by the teacher. The purpose of language learning is to learn how to use the language to communicate. Positive reinforcement helps the students to develop corrects habits. Students should learn to respond to both verbal and nonverbal stimuli. Each language has a finite number of patterns. Pattern practice helps students to form habits which enable the students to use the patterns.
Students should overlearn (learn to answer automatically without stopping to think). The teacher should be like an orchestra leader. The major objective of language teaching should be for students to acquire the structural patterns.
The major challenge of foreign language teaching is getting students to overcome the habits of their native language. Speech is more basic to language than the written form.
Goals of teachers:  Teachers want their students to be able to use the target language communicatively.
Role of teacher and students:   The teacher is like an orchestra leader, directing and controlling the language behavior of her students. She is also responsible for providing her students with a good model for imitation. Students are imitators of the teacher’s model or the tapes she supplies of model speakers. They follow the teacher’s directions and respond as accurately and as rapidly as possible.
Some characteristics of the teaching/learning process: New vocabulary and structural patterns are presented through dialogues. The dialogues are learned through imitation and repetition. Drills are conducted based upon the patterns present in the dialogue.
Nature of student-teacher interaction and student-student interaction:
            There is student to student interaction in chain drills or when students take different roles in dialogs, but this interaction is teacher-directed. What areas of language are emphasized?   Vocabulary is kept to a minimum while the students are mastering the sound system and grammatical patterns. A grammatical pattern is not the same as sentence. The natural order of skills presentation is adhered to: listening, speaking, reading, and writing. The oral skills receive most of the attention. What is the role of students’ native language?  The target language is used in classroom, not the students’ native language. How does the teacher respond to student errors?            Student errors are to be avoided.
Techniques: Dialogue memorization,  Backward build-up drill, Repetition drill, Chain drill, Single-slot substitution drill, Multiple-slot substitution drill, Transformation drill, Question-and-answer drill, Minimal pairs, Grammar game

. The goal of foreign language study is to learn a language in order to read



Brief Explanation: Based on the teacher’s self-assessment, API scores are proposed for (a) teaching related activities; (b) domain knowledge; (c) participation in examination and evaluation; (d) contribution to innovative teaching, new courses etc. The minimum API score required by teachers from this category is 75. The self assessment score should be based on objectively verifiable criteria wherever possible and will be finalized by the screening/selection committee.
Universities will be required to detail the activities and in case institutional specificities require, adjust the weightages, without changing the minimum total API scores required under this category.


S. No.
Nature of Activity
Maximum Score
Lectures, seminars, tutorials, practicals, contact hours
undertaken taken as percentage of lectures allocated
46 / 50
Lectures or other teaching duties in excess of the U G C
09 / 10
Preparation and Imparting of knowledge / instruction as
per curriculum; syllabus enrichment by providing
additional resources to students
18 / 20
Use of participatory and innovative teaching-learning
methodologies; updating of subject content, course
improvement etc.
18 / 20
Examination duties (Invigilation; question paper setting,
evaluation/assessment of answer scripts) as per
24 / 25

Total Score
115 / 125

Minimum API Score Required

Note: a: Lectures and tutorials allocation to add up to the U G C norm for particular category of teacher. University may prescribe minimum cut-off (net of due leave), say 80 %, for 1 and 5 above, below which no scores may be assigned in these sub-categories.


Brief Explanation: Based on the teacher’s self-assessment, category II API scores are proposed for co-curricular and extension activities; and Professional development related contributions. The minimum API required by teachers for eligibility for promotion is 15. A list of items and proposed scores is given below. It will be noticed that all teachers can earn scores from a number of items, whereas some activities will be carried out only be one or a few teachers. The list of activities is broad enough for the minimum API score required (15) in this category to accrue to all teachers. As before, the self-assessment score should be based on objectively verifiable criteria and will be finalized by the screening/selection committee.

The model table below gives groups of activities and API scores. Universities may detail the activities or, in case institutional specificities require, adjust the weightages, without changing the minimum total API scores required under this category.

S. No.
Nature of Activity
Maximum Score
Student related co-curricular, extension and field based
activities (such as extension work through NSS/NCC
and other channels, cultural activities, subject related
events, advisement and counseling)
18 / 20
Contribution to Corporate life and management of the
department and institution through participation in
academic and administrative committees and
13 / 15
Professional Development activities (such as
participation in seminars, conferences, short term,
training courses, talks, lectures, membership of
associations, dissemination and general articles, not
covered in Category III below)
14 / 15

Minimum API Score Required
45/ 15

  Total API score of Category I + Category II = 160


Brief Explanation: Based on the teacher’s self-assessment, API scores are proposed for research and academic contributions. The minimum API score required by teachers from this category is different for different levels of promotion and between university and colleges. The self-assessment score will be based on verifiable criteria and will be finalized by the screening/selection committee.

Faculties of Languages
Sciences/Library/ Physical
Max. points for
University and
college teacher
Research Papers
published in:
Refereed Journals*
Non-refereed but recognized
and reputable journals and
periodicals, having ISBN/ISSN

Conference proceedings as full papers, etc. (Abstracts not to be included)
Refereed Journals*
Non-refereed but recognized
and reputable journals and
periodicals, having ISBN/ISSN
Conference proceedings as full papers, etc. (Abstracts not to be included)
15/ publication

10 /

30 10 /
Research Publications
(books, chapters in
books, other than
refereed journal articles)
Text or Reference Books
Published by International
Publishers with an established
peer review system
Text or Reference Books
Published by International
Publishers with an established
peer review system
 50 /sole author;
10 /chapter in an
edited book

Subjects Books by National
level publishers/State and
Central Govt. Publications with
ISBN/ISSN numbers.
Subject Books by / national
level publishers/State and
Central Govt. Publications with
ISBN/ISSN numbers.
25 /sole author,
and 5/ chapter in
edited books

Subject Books by Other local
publishers with ISBN/ISSN
Subject Books by Other local
publishers with ISBN/ISSN
90 /15 / sole author,
and 3 / chapter in
edited books

Chapters contributed to edited
knowledge based volumes
published by International
Chapters contributed to edited
knowledge based volumes
published by International
10 /Chapter

Chapters in knowledge based
volumes by Indian/National
level publishers with ISBN/ISSN
numbers and with numbers of
national and international
Chapters in knowledge based
volumes in Indian/National
level publishers with ISBN
/ISSN numbers and with
numbers of national and
international directories
5 / Chapter
III (C) (i)
Sponsored Projects
carried out/ ongoing
(a) Major Projects amount
mobilized with grants above
30.0 lakhs
Major Projects amount
mobilized with grants above
5.0 lakhs
20 /each Project

(b) Major Projects amount
mobilized with grants above
5.0 lakhs up to 30.00 lakhs
Major Projects Amount
mobilized with minimum of Rs.
3.00 lakhs up to Rs. 5.00 lakhs
15 /each Project
(c) Minor Projects (Amount
mobilized with grants above
Rs. 50,000 up to Rs. 5 lakh)
Minor Projects (Amount
mobilized with grants above
Rs. 25,000 up to Rs. 3 lakh)
10 / 10/each Project
III (C) (ii)
Consultancy Projects
carried out / ongoing
Amount mobilized with
minimum of Rs.10.00 lakh
Amount mobilized with
minimum of Rs. 2.0 lakhs
10 per every
Rs.10.0 lakhs and
Rs.2.0 lakhs,
III (C) (iii)
Completed projects :
Quality Evaluation
Completed project Report
(Acceptance from funding
Completed project report
(Accepted by funding agency)
20 /each major
project and 10 /
each minor
Outcome / Outputs
Patent/Technology transfer/
Major Policy document of
Govt. Bodies at Central and
State level
30 / each national
level output or
patent /50 /each
for International
Degree awarded only
Degree awarded only
90 / 3 /each candidate
III (D) (ii)
Degree awarded
Degree awarded
10 /each
Refresher courses,
workshops, Training,
Evaluation Technology
Programmes, Soft
Skills development
Programmes, Faculty
Programmes (Max: 30
(a) Not less than two weeks

(b) One week duration
(a) Not less than two weeks

(b) One week duration
80 / 20/each


30 / 10/each

Papers in Conferences/
workshops etc.**
Participation and Presentation
of research papers (oral/poster)
a)     International conference
b)    National
c)     Regional/State level
d) Local –University/College
Participation and Presentation
of research papers
(oral/poster) in

a)International conference
b) National
c) Regional/State level
d) Local –University/College

80 / 10 each

 75 / 7.5 / each
20 / 5 /each
90 / 3 / each

Invited lectures or
presentations for
conferences/ /
(a)   International


(b) National level

(a)  International


(b) National level
10 /each


5/ each
*Wherever relevant to any specific discipline, the API score for paper in refereed journal would be augmented as follows: (i) indexed journals – by 5 points; (ii) papers with impact factor between 1 and 2 by 10 points; (iii) papers with impact factor between 2 and 5 by 15 points; (iv) papers with impact factor between 5 and 10 by 25 points. ** If a paper presented in Conference/Seminar is published in the form of Proceedings, the points would accrue for the publication (III (a)) and not under presentation (III (e)(ii)).
1. It is incumbent on the Coordination Committee proposed in these Regulations and the University to prepare and publicize within six months subject-wise lists of journals, periodicals and publishers under categories IIIA and B. Till such time, screening/selection committees will assess and verify the categorization and scores of publications. 2. The API for joint publications will have to be calculated in the following manner: Of the total score for the relevant category of publication by the concerned teacher, the first/Principal author and the corresponding author/supervisor/mentor of the teacher would share equally 60% of the total points and the remaining 40% would be shared equally by all other authors.

Total API Score of Category III - 595

Grand Total API Score of   Category I + Category II + Category III = 755